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Six editions of legal commentary by noted Erasmian and humanist, Christopher Hegendorphinus, many of whose works were condemned in the Index, were found, including three copies of the banned Consilium de compendiaria discendi jura civila ratione. But with these exceptions, the inventory does not include works by notorious heretics. It is possible that this is because such works were carefully hidden. But the Franciscans were willing to continue to keep banned books by Erasmus in their libraries.

Works by Luther, Calvin, and others simply do not appear in other investigations in Mexico during the colonial period. It appears that the taste in prohibited books in Mexico tended toward unapproved spiritual guides, Erasmus and, later, in an underground market in slightly scurrilous and titillating satire manuscripts. Overall, the picture provided by Ledesma's purge is of systemic inability of ecclesiastical authorities prior to to prevent the entry and circulation of prohibited books into Mexico. The other major method by which the Inquisition attempted to regulate the circulation of prohibited books was by stationing a deputy in the port city of Veracruz to inspect the trans-Atlantic ship trade.

The regulation of books coming through the port of Veracruz after was lax. First, the deputies did not screen the books carefully; instead of noting the specific editions of books, the details of place of publication, and of the language of Books of Hours and scriptural editions were left out of their inspections, as was required by Inquisitional law. Second, various groups of individuals were exempted, illegally, from the ship inspection process.

Third, it is entirely possible, though nearly impossible to prove, that many of the Inquisitional deputies stationed in Veracruz actively thwarted the rules and designs of the Index itself.

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In the port of Veracruz, Inquisitional law made clear that books could only pass through the port if certain conditions were met. The trans-Atlantic trade routes were, theoretically, carefully controlled and Seville was Spain's only approved port of departure. This meant that one had to prove that one was not fleeing royal or inquisitional justice and required an interview with the Inquisition of Seville.

Anyone bringing books was required to obtain similar licenses for trade and to prove that no heretical or banned books were among those being carried. With only very few exceptions, royal officials, missionaries, ecclesiastical officials, merchants, settlers, or even artisans were not interviewed by the Veracruz deputy. For example, on August 26, , maese Juan de Atibar stated during the inspection that there were several Dominican friars on board, yet not a single one of them figured among the 35 men interviewed by the deputy.

The inquisitional deputies of Veracruz did on occasion take depositions and inventories of individuals coming into Mexico with the express purpose of selling books or when individual citizens from Spain offered an inventory of books. Sossa had brought some books, presumably for sale, from Spain. Among his inventory one finds primarily spiritual works: three dozen prayer books, various Hours of Our Lady, 30 copies of prayer books by Luis de Granada, the Papal History , three copies of the Flos Santorum , and a handful of confessional, sacramental, and missal guides. Even in this case there did not seem to be much attempt to avoid declaring possession of questionable editions or illegal books, since the editions of Luis de Granada and Papal History were not specified, and some editions of these were specifically banned.

View all notes The popular Papal History Historia pontifical , by Gonzalo Illescas, went through 46 editions between and , despite attempts to control its content and regulate its popularity.

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Barcelona: n. View all notes The Index banned all editions printed prior to Such declarations were, however, mostly the exception. The Veracruz deputies almost never interviewed anyone but sailors, who were the least likely to bring books in any case. Virtually no other individuals were interviewed, despite the laws stipulating that no one was exempt from this oversight.

Moreover, the deputies of Veracruz were notably relaxed in the content of their interviews. In theory they were to board every ship. This meant, especially since all deputies were priests and most, for this time period, friars, boarding the ships in stifling tropical heat in thick robes or sackcloth. They were instructed to inspect the merchandise—much of it in large barrels and boxes.

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In reading the ship inspections there is no mention of attempts to open this material. One assumes a flood of contraband entered Mexico in this manner—books wrapped in oilcloth and buried under hard tack. The deputy asked a series of formulaic questions—had the person heard or seen any heretical acts; what books were on board? The records in Veracruz are, in general, less extensive than the records of outgoing ship inspections in Seville.

View all notes Most of these declarations, like the Veracruz inspections, are not extent before the s and the bulk of them are from the seventeenth century. They show the widespread popularity of works by Luis de Granada, of spiritual works in general, and of Cervantes.

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We can compare their results with the inspections in Veracruz to show that the enforcement of the Index on the American side was clearly more adaptive and forgiving. The first extant recorded inspection is from the summer of and shows that even at that stage there were considerable structural deficiencies in the ship inspections. He interviewed 43 men, virtually all of them sailors. He recorded their responses and noted every time they mentioned a book.

The figures given here do not necessarily reflect the number of editions in the fleet see Table 1. Rather, they represent the number of times any given book was mentioned, as most sailors were illiterate and simply reported on the books of which they were aware—reflecting the widespread practice of the reading aloud of books on board ship and the stifling physical promiscuity of human bodies. CSV Display Table. This first extant inspection reflects many typical trends of such inspections. Books of Hours were by far, as continued to be the case for decades, the most popular books. This was in spite of the attempts by the Index to prohibit and restrict their circulation. Spiritual works also were quite popular. One notes the presence of works on prayer by fray Luis de Granada, for example.

Other works, also potentially banned and suspect included the Flos santorum and the Papal History —both of them had specific editions banned. In many instances, and probably much to the displeasure of inquisitors, sailors referred to the Flos santorum as entertainment and did not view it as a spiritual work.

Given the often gruesome tales of martyrdom and the occasionally titillating stories of converts to Christianity one thinks of Augustine's Confessions , it is not surprising that the Flos santorum was a kind of sixteenth century scandal sheet. It is not clear if the Sevillan inquisitors made this distinction because those records are no longer extant. But the Papal History appears in ship declarations of and before Seville's trade officials. Such declarations have considerably fewer prohibited or suspect books, suggesting that the control was stricter and individuals more likely to hide such books from the prying eyes of trade officials.

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  7. View all notes None of these seem to have been confiscated. It is difficult to know if this same adaptive attitude prevailed in the Seville Inquisition, as the records of that court were destroyed in the Carlist Wars in the nineteenth century, but the records of the shipment of books from Seville's trade officials also show consistently high amounts of Hours but considerably fewer of the Papal History.

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    But those records do not show editions of Erasmus, or specifically Spanish Hours, or other prohibited or suspect works. In , in the first inspection recorded by his successor, the Franciscan Diego de Bobadilla, the banned books continued to receive a free pass. Spanish Hours and unspecified editions of the Flos Santorum were counted along with works by Luis de Granada, tales of chivalry and comedies among the 45 sailors he interviewed see Table 2. The deputies in Veracruz continued for decades to note the titles of books mentioned by sailors.

    But there appears to be no evidence that these books were ever confiscated. Likewise, there is no evidence that the deputies asked specific questions about the editions of potentially banned books. Books of Hours and the works of Luis de Granada continued to stream in with little apparant oversight or regulation. Indeed, the works of Luis de Granada were by far the single best selling and most frequently shipped book from Spain to the Americas in the seventeenth century.

    View all notes Generically titled devotional books also met this same lack of investigation. View all notes In one such inspection in the Franciscan comisario Francisco Carranco interviewed 34 individuals, 13 of whom mentioned Spanish devotional books, six books of Hours, and five copies of Luis de Granada.

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    View all notes In the autumn of Carranco interviewed 77 men and recorded no less than 17 Spanish Hours, 15 Flos Santorum , and 10 copies of Luis de Granada. View all notes The ever popular Papal History continued to march on through despite the ban on pre editions. These are representative examples of the dozens of inspections undertaken in Veracruz from the s through the s. All are characterized by a general lack of specificity and no mention of physically confiscating banned or suspect books.