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- The Psychology of the Employment Relationship: An Analysis Based on the Psychological Contract
- The Psychological Contract - pbenbuedolati.ml
The distribution of age was also relatively balanced: respondents aged below 25 accounted for In addition, the investigation samples also involved transportation, catering, information servicing, finance, real estate and other fields. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were analyzed using item analysis and principal component analysis, which proved that the scale has good reliability and validity.
The formal investigation consisted of two parts: the first part was the investigation of basic personal information and the second part was the investigation of the EOPD.
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The formal investigation proceeded with the online questionnaire and paper questionnaire. The network questionnaire was generated mainly by using a professional questionnaire survey website questionnaire star , and was then disseminated selectively through the commonly used Chinese social platforms e. Given the total number of questionnaire items, the investigation required that valid questionnaires should be filled in for at least 5 min.
The paper questionnaire was mainly completed on site by research team members to distribute the questionnaire to their classmates, friends, and relatives across different regions, with pay. Before the investigation, the researchers determined the regional research sample using stratified sampling.
In consideration of the different economic and regional features in eastern, central and western regions, the researchers chose two cities from each of the three regions: Hebei and Jiangsu in the eastern region, Anhui and Hunan in the central region, and Sichuan and Xinjiang in the western region. In addition, the proportion of samples conformed to real social distribution conditions and guaranteed the representativeness of the sample. During the research process, the investigators informed respondents of the purpose of the investigation and the confidentiality of personal information used for scientific research purposes, reminded them of the importance of carefully and authentically filling in the questionnaire, and ensured the authenticity and integrity of the questionnaire by supervising respondents in a one-to-one or one-to-many format.
After the investigation, the investigator also sent a gift or bonus to the respondents for their participation, and thus further ensured the recovery rate and validity of the questionnaire. Eventually, the research formally collected questionnaires, including valid questionnaires. Please refer to Table 2 for specific sample distribution conditions. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
It is the duty of researchers who are involved in psychological research to protect the life, health, dignity, integrity, right to self-determination, privacy and confidentiality of personal information of research subjects. The responsibility for the protection of research subjects must always rest with our research team and the China Occupational Safety and Health Association — Occupational Mental Health Professional Committee and never with the research subjects, even though they have given consent.
This research adopted confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS At the same time, the standardized load value of the measurement items of each latent variable was greater than 0. The corresponding AVE values were 0. The descriptive analyses of EOPD, , , , , respectively, represent the integrated relationship, loyalty relationship, existence relationship, and exclude relationship.
These results illustrate that the current situation of employee—organization relationships are not optimistic. Further analysis showed that the percentage of objective social distance in an exclude relationship was much lower than that of other kinds of distance, only We further analyzed six distances on each dimension Figures 3 — 6 and discovered that average spatial—temporal distance and average objective social distance were large in integrated and loyalty relationships the average spatiotemporal distance in integrated relationships was more than 2 , while they were relatively small in existence and exclude relationships and appeared convergent.
This demonstrated that spatiotemporal distance and objective social distance were stable. However, the trend reversed for emotional distance and experiential distance: their average values were small in integrated and loyalty relationships, and large in existence and exclude relationships, where they appeared divergent. This shows that those employees who have greater emotional distance and experiential distance volatility more easily generate extreme either too intimate or too remote emotional and experiential intimacy perception.
Average psychological distance distribution on integrated relationship. Figure 5. Average psychological distance distribution on existence relationship. In order to research the impact of social statistical variables on the EOPD and each dimension, we employed the independent-sample t -test, one-way ANOVA, multiple-comparison analysis and mean value comparison tests to explore the effects of social characteristics on EOPD and each dimension. The results are listed in Table 4.
Difference analysis and multiple-comparison analysis of EOPD and each dimension on demographic variables. We analyzed further the mean value of the differentiated EOPD from the view of demographic and organizational statistics.
The partial results are shown in Figures 7 — Figure 7. Mean value of psychological distance and dimensions thereof in the age. Figure 8. Mean value of Psychological distance and dimensions thereof in the educational background. Figure 9. Mean value of Psychological distance and dimensions thereof in the position level. Figure Mean value of Psychological distance and dimensions thereof in the residential area.nttsystem.xsrv.jp/libraries/82/puq-whatsapp-iphone.php
After the above-mentioned analysis, it was concluded that EOPD and its dimensions, except for experiential distance, differed significantly with age. Participants aged 41—50 years had the largest psychological distance 3. Findings for the other dimensions included the following: individuals who were older than 56 years had the largest behavioral distance, emotional distance and spatiotemporal distance with their organizations; people aged 46—50 had the largest objective social distance with their organizations; those aged 21—25 had the smallest behavioral and emotional distance with their organizations; participants younger than 20 had the smallest cognitive distance and time-space distance with their organizations; those who were over 56 had the smallest objective social distance with their organizations.
Employee—organization psychological distance and four dimensions behavioral distance, emotional distance, cognitive distance, and objective social distance were significantly different in participants of different educational backgrounds. Participants of junior college level had the largest values for the above distances.
Those with doctoral or post-doctoral education had the smallest psychological distance, behavioral distance, emotional distance, and cognitive distance subjective social distance. Employees of high school or technical secondary school educational level had the smallest objective social distance with their organizations. Employee—organization psychological distance and four dimensions behavioral distance, emotional distance, cognitive distance, and objective social distance were significantly different in participants from different residential areas.
Those who lived in houses of — m 2 had the largest psychological distance in the above dimensions with their organizations. People who lived in houses bigger than m 2 had the smallest behavioral distance, emotional distance and cognitive distance with their organizations. Participants who lived in houses smaller than 40 m 2 had the smallest spatiotemporal distance with their organizations.
Employee—organization psychological distance and each dimension were significantly different regarding positional hierarchy. First-line managers had the smallest distance psychological distance as well as each dimension with their organizations. Junior managers kept the largest psychological distance, experiential distance, behavioral distance, and cognitive distance with their organizations.
Senior managers maintained the largest spatiotemporal distance from their organizations. Ordinary staff had the largest objective social distance with their organizations. Employee—organization psychological distance and each dimension were significantly different regarding marital status. Employees who were married had the largest distance from their organizations for psychological distance, experiential distance, behavioral distance, emotional distance, cognitive distance, and objective distance.
People who were remarried maintained a high spatiotemporal distance from their organizations. Participants who were divorced had the smallest psychological distance and the same was true for each dimension.
The Psychology of the Employment Relationship: An Analysis Based on the Psychological Contract
Employee—organization psychological distance and each dimension were significantly different regarding occupational area. This was followed by the transportation, warehousing, and mail business industry, whose average psychological distance was 3. In addition, individuals who worked in public management and social insurance had the smallest cognitive distance and objective social distance with their organizations. In order to obtain particular knowledge of the four kinds of relationships, we analyzed their population distribution characteristics and detailed proportions.
Using the conclusions of the difference analysis, we chose variables that had significant differences age, marital situation, educational background, residential area, occupational area, and positional hierarchy to analyze further the distributional features of each group and picked out variables which accounted for the largest proportions in Table 5. Table 5.
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- The Relationship between the `Psychological Contract' and `Employment Relations'.
As illustrated in Table 5 , half of the participants in an integrated relationship were younger than 25, half of those in a loyalty relationship were 21—30 years old, nearly half However, participants who were older than 51 had no integrated relationship with their organizations, while those older than 55 had no loyalty relationship with their organizations but only maintained existence or exclude relationships.
In other words, the employee—organization relationship appears to deteriorate with age. Given the social laws regarding marital status, most of the people in our sample were married, while a small percentage of them were divorced or remarried. As a consequence, the relationship distribution for marital status showed that participants who were married accounted for the biggest proportion in all the types of relationship. We may infer that marriage increases the EOPD. This illustrated that these participants were able to handle the relationship with their organizations.
They were less likely to show extreme emotions, for example too close or too distant, toward their groups.
The distribution of relationship types regarding residential area showed that participants who lived in houses of over m 2 or under 80 m 2 were more likely to be found in integrated and loyalty relationships, while those who lived in houses between 80 and m 2 or between and m 2 were found mostly in existence and exclude relationships. Therefore, employee—organization relationships showed an inverted U-shaped trend regarding residential area. The relationship distribution regarding occupational area showed that people in public management and social insurance accounted for the highest percentage in integrated relationships, at Employees in wholesale and retail, culture and sports, and entertainment industries held the largest proportion in loyalty relationships, at People in the mining industry were the largest group in existence relationships, at People in education, hotel and catering industries accounted for the highest percentage in exclude relationships, at The proportion of ordinary staff was similar in the four relationships and was the highest, which illustrated that the ordinary staff—organization psychological distance had no significant regularities.
Grassroots staff mostly maintained unstable relationships with their organizations. Use of the classification of integrated relationships, loyalty relationships, existence relationships, and exclude relationships can exactly demonstrate the closeness or distance between employees and their organization. Through empirical analysis, we found that 2. In conclusion, most of the employees we investigated maintained a large psychological distance from their organizations. Allinson et al. These are specific indicators of unhealthy employee—organization relationships.
Similar trends can be viewed in China, where the degree of closeness psychological distance between employees and their organization decreased when the market economy became more complete, the talent market became more open and the demand for profit increased.
The Psychological Contract - pbenbuedolati.ml
Our research revealed that However, when we consider the integrated relationship, we assume that the employee—organization relationship belongs to the employees and there is a natural social environmental interaction. Employees who maintained an integrated relationship with their organizations gradually formed Pan-familism relationships Yang and Lu, , which is a kind of family affection Zhu et al.
Our results showed that these employees only accounted for 2. Exploring deeply into the dimensions of psychological distance, we found that cognitive distance and behavioral distance showed the greatest distances and accounted for the biggest proportion of the exclude relationship, at Related studies have demonstrated that value fit between employee and organization has a positive impact on work satisfaction Sanjay et al.
Additionally, emotional distance was smaller than behavioral distance in our study. This is similar to the findings of attitude-behavior gap studies Lane and Potter, ; Wang and Du, Employee—organization objective social distance and experiential distance were relatively small and occupied the highest proportion in integrated relationships, at 8. Viewed from an overall perspective, employees may objectively think that they are similar to the organization in average age or educational level, or they may not care about the influences of these differences.
Psychological contracts help to shrink the gap of psychological distance. Evidence has shown that breaking of a psychological contract may promote counterproductive work behavior in an organization. This is probably because young people have stronger passions, curiosities and dependences on their organization when they first become involved in work and society, so that they generate a close psychological relationship with the organization.
Zhu and Guo discovered, in their study on newcomers, that new employees had stronger interests and motivations in collective activities, which presented as psychological qualities such as being cooperative, responsible, genuine, diligent, etc. In this process, employees improved their abilities and values, with a higher expectation for salary and position. Research has shown that equity of reward especially affects people who stay in an organization for the long term Yang et al. Divorced employees had smaller psychological distance from their organizations. We assume that this was because divorced people were more fragile in psychology.
They cannot get warmth from home, so they pursue the organization for comfort and devote themselves to work with greater enthusiasm.